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Primary Server Setup

Logging

Check that the primary database is in archivelog mode.

SELECT log_mode FROM v$database;

LOG_MODE
------------
NOARCHIVELOG

SQL>
If it is noarchivelog mode, switch is to archivelog mode.

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
STARTUP MOUNT;
ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG;
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
Enabled forced logging by issuing the following command.

ALTER DATABASE FORCE LOGGING;
Initialization Parameters

Check the setting for the DB_NAME and DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameters. In this case they are both set to "DB11G" on the primary database.

SQL> show parameter db_name

NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_name string DB11G

SQL> show parameter db_unique_name

NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_unique_name string DB11G

SQL>
The DB_NAME of the standby database will be the same as that of the primary, but it must have a different DB_UNIQUE_NAME value. The DB_UNIQUE_NAME values of the primary and standby database should be used in the DG_CONFIG setting of the LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG parameter. For this example, the standby database will have the value "DB11G_STBY".

ALTER SYSTEM SET LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG='DG_CONFIG=(DB11G,DB11G_STBY)';
Set suitable remote archive log destinations. In this case I'm using the fast recovery area for the local location, but you could specify an location explicitly if you prefer. Notice the SERVICE and the DB_UNIQUE_NAME for the remote location reference the standby location.

ALTER SYSTEM SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2='SERVICE=db11g_stby NOAFFIRM ASYNC VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=DB11G_STBY';
ALTER SYSTEM SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_2=ENABLE;
The LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT and LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES parameters must be set to appropriate values and the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE must be set to exclusive.

ALTER SYSTEM SET LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT='%t_%s_%r.arc' SCOPE=SPFILE;
ALTER SYSTEM SET LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES=30;
ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=EXCLUSIVE SCOPE=SPFILE;
In addition to the previous setting, it is recommended to make sure the primary is ready to switch roles to become a standby. For that to work properly we need to set the following parameters. Adjust the *_CONVERT parameters to account for your filename and path differences between the servers.

ALTER SYSTEM SET FAL_SERVER=DB11G_STBY;
--ALTER SYSTEM SET DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT='DB11G_STBY','DB11G' SCOPE=SPFILE;
--ALTER SYSTEM SET LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT='DB11G_STBY','DB11G' SCOPE=SPFILE;
ALTER SYSTEM SET STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=AUTO;
Remember, some of the parameters are not modifiable, so the database will need to be restarted before they take effect.

Service Setup

Entries for the primary and standby databases are needed in the "$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora" files on both servers. You can create these using the Network Configuration Utility (netca) or manually. The following entries were used during this setup.

DB11G =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ol5-112-dga1)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVICE_NAME = DB11G.WORLD)
)
)

DB11G_STBY =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ol5-112-dga2)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVICE_NAME = DB11G.WORLD)
)
)
Backup Primary Database

If you are planning to use an active duplicate to create the standby database, then this step is unnecessary. For a backup-based duplicate, or a manual restore, take a backup of the primary database.

$ rman target=/

RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
Create Standby Controlfile and PFILE

Create a controlfile for the standby database by issuing the following command on the primary database.

ALTER DATABASE CREATE STANDBY CONTROLFILE AS '/tmp/db11g_stby.ctl';
Create a parameter file for the standby database.

CREATE PFILE='/tmp/initDB11G_stby.ora' FROM SPFILE;
Amend the PFILE making the entries relevant for the standby database. I'm making a replica of the original server, so in my case I only had to amend the following parameters.

*.db_unique_name='DB11G_STBY'
*.fal_server='DB11G'
*.log_archive_dest_2='SERVICE=db11g ASYNC VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=DB11G'
Standby Server Setup (Manual)

Copy Files

Create the necessary directories on the standby server.

$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G
$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G
$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/admin/DB11G/adump
Copy the files from the primary to the standby server.

$ # Standby controlfile to all locations.
$ scp oracle@ol5-112-dga1:/tmp/db11g_stby.ctl /u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/control01.ctl
$ cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/control01.ctl /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G/control02.ctl

$ # Archivelogs and backups
$ scp -r oracle@ol5-112-dga1:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G/archivelog /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G
$ scp -r oracle@ol5-112-dga1:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G/backupset /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G

$ # Parameter file.
$ scp oracle@ol5-112-dga1:/tmp/initDB11G_stby.ora /tmp/initDB11G_stby.ora

$ # Remote login password file.
$ scp oracle@ol5-112-dga1:$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwDB11G $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
Notice, the backups were copied across to the standby server as part of the FRA copy. If your backups are not held within the FRA, you must make sure you copy them to the standby server and make them available from the same path as used on the primary server.

Start Listener

Make sure the listener is started on the standby server.

$ lsnrctl start
Restore Backup

Create the SPFILE form the amended PFILE.

$ export ORACLE_SID=DB11G
$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL> CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE='/tmp/initDB11G_stby.ora';
Restore the backup files.

$ export ORACLE_SID=DB11G
$ rman target=/

RMAN> STARTUP MOUNT;
RMAN> RESTORE DATABASE;
Create Redo Logs

Create online redo logs for the standby. It's a good idea to match the configuration of the primary server.

ALTER SYSTEM SET STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=MANUAL;
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/online_redo01.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/online_redo02.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/online_redo03.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER SYSTEM SET STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=AUTO;
In addition to the online redo logs, you should create standby redo logs on both the standby and the primary database (in case of switchovers). The standby redo logs should be at least as big as the largest online redo log and there should be one extra group per thread compared the online redo logs. In my case, the following is standby redo logs must be created on both servers.

ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo01.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo02.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo03.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo04.log') SIZE 50M;
Once this is complete, we can start the apply process.

Standby Server Setup (DUPLICATE)

Copy Files

Create the necessary directories on the standby server.

$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G
$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G
$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/admin/DB11G/adump
Copy the files from the primary to the standby server.

$ # Standby controlfile to all locations.
$ scp oracle@ol5-112-dga1:/tmp/db11g_stby.ctl /u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/control01.ctl
$ cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/control01.ctl /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/DB11G/control02.ctl

$ # Parameter file.
$ scp oracle@ol5-112-dga1:/tmp/initDB11G_stby.ora /tmp/initDB11G_stby.ora

$ # Remote login password file.
$ scp oracle@ol5-112-dga1:$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwDB11G $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
Start Listener

When using active duplicate, the standby server requires static listener configuration in a "listener.ora" file. In this case I used the following configuration.

SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = DB11G.WORLD)
(ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
(SID_NAME = DB11G)
)
)

LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ol5-112-dga2.localdomain)(PORT = 1521))
)
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))
)
)

ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /u01/app/oracle
Make sure the listener is started on the standby server.

$ lsnrctl start
Create Standby Redo Logs on Primary Server

The DUPLICATE command automatically creates the standby redo logs on the standby. To make sure the primary database is configured for switchover, we must create the standby redo logs on the primary server.

ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo01.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo02.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo03.log') SIZE 50M;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/DB11G/standby_redo04.log') SIZE 50M;
Create Standby Using DUPLICATE

Start the auxillary instance on the standby server by starting it using the temporary "init.ora" file.

$ export ORACLE_SID=DB11G
$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT PFILE='/tmp/initDB11G_stby.ora';
Connect to RMAN, specifying a full connect string for both the TARGET and AUXILLARY instances. DO not attempt to use OS authentication.

$ rman TARGET sys/password@DB11G AUXILIARY sys/password@DB11G_STBY
Now issue the following DUPLICATE command.

DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE
FOR STANDBY
FROM ACTIVE DATABASE
DORECOVER
SPFILE
SET db_unique_name='DB11G_STBY' COMMENT 'Is standby'
SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2='SERVICE=db11g ASYNC VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=DB11G'
SET FAL_SERVER='DB11G' COMMENT 'Is primary'
NOFILENAMECHECK;
A brief explanation of the individual clauses is shown below.
FOR STANDBY: This tells the DUPLICATE command is to be used for a standby, so it will not force a DBID change.
FROM ACTIVE DATABASE: The DUPLICATE will be created directly from the source datafile, without an additional backup step.
DORECOVER: The DUPLICATE will include the recovery step, bringing the standby up to the current point in time.
SPFILE: Allows us to reset values in the spfile when it is copied from the source server.
NOFILENAMECHECK: Destination file locations are not checked.
Once the command is complete, we can start the apply process.

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